Alignment Equipment for the Modern Repair Shop

Looking at Alignment – From a Few Different Angles

Independent shops that are investing in modern alignment equipment are quickly realizing the profit potential that it offers.

It could be argued that modern alignment equipment has seen some of the most enjoyable advancements over any other automotive equipment in recent years. It has become so technician friendly that many shops are providing no more than a five-minute crash course to new technicians coming in.

This makes it easy for seasoned technicians who are familiar with alignment theory since any learning curve on new equipment is virtually eliminated. It also makes it easy for new technicians or those without alignment experience because the new equipment basically walks you through the entire alignment process.

The downside is without core knowledge of alignment geometry and how it affects vehicle handling, you may not be able to properly diagnose steering-related issues or recognize them and tie them in with alignment readings.

So before we get into some of the features and benefits of new alignment equipment, we thought we’d run through a quick refresher on steering system geometry and alignment.

Steering System Refresher

The steering system on a car, in the most obvious sense, simply gives the driver directional control of the vehicle. What’s important not to forget is that the steering system, while quite often only thought of as the components that make it up, such as the tie rods, is functionally interrelated to all of the suspension angles on a vehicle.

The steering system is designed to work together with properly set alignment angles as well as built-in angles and suspensions design in order to provide the best directional control of the vehicle. When you perform an alignment, you are ensuring that the angles are correct for the particular vehicle you are working on, which in turn allows the suspension and steering to work together as designed.

Camber is the inclination of the centerline of the wheel from a vertical position when viewed from the front. Camber is considered positive when the top of the wheel centerline tilts outward, negative when it tilts inward. Positive camber creates a natural turning tendency so a vehicle will tend to go toward the side with the most positive camber. Equal camber on each side causes any turning tendencies to oppose each other.

To picture this, think of rolling a wheel across the shop. If it is perfectly vertical, it will roll straight. If it tilts to one side or the other, it will roll in a circle in the direction it is tilted.

Not only will incorrect camber affect the directional tendency of the vehicle, but it will also cause tire wear on one side of the tread. The wider the tire, the more important it becomes to provide equal weight distribution across the tread of the tire with the correct camber setting.

Caster is the angle between a vertical line drawn through the spindle and a line drawn through the steering axis. The steering axis line is best described as a line drawn through the upper and lower ball joints, or through the upper strut pivot and lower ball joint, depending on the type of suspension.

Positive caster is when the top of the steering axis tilts toward the rear of the vehicle and negative when it tilts toward the front. Caster can easily be a subject on its own, but the most noticeable effects are with directional stability and steering effort. Rarely do we have to make caster adjustments on newer vehicles, but if the caster angle is incorrect, it’s time to look for bent components or possible collision damage.

Caster is not a tire wearing angle, but should not be ignored and vehicles that require a caster adjustment rely on it so all steering and suspension angles work together and make the vehicle handle as it was designed.

Toe is the difference in distance between the front and back of the tires. Toe-in is when the fronts of the tires are closer together than the backs. Generally speaking, slight toe-in is preferred because vehicles are aligned when they are stationary. While a vehicle is moving, dynamic loads on linkage components will cause a slight change in alignment angles, resulting in running toe that is different than the static setting.

A slight toe-in as a static setting will result in a zero running toe when the vehicle goes down the road and dynamic forces act on the steering. A zero or slight toe-in is best for running toe as toe-out will generally cause a vehicle to wander. Incorrect or excessive toe-in or toe-out will cause abnormal tire wear.

Camber, caster and toe illustrations

There are also a number of additional angles and measurements (perhaps a topic for another day) related to vehicle alignment and you may have heard of Steering Axis Inclination and Toe-Out on Turns. These are non-adjustable angles but when all other alignment specifications are correct, they will in turn be within specification. If not, look for bent components.

On To Modern Alignment Equipment

As technicians, regardless of the job, we are focused on quality and accuracy along with productivity. Older alignment equipment, some of which is still in service in many shops, is known for the amount of time it takes to make the initial set up and take measurements. It’s not uncommon for technicians to avoid the process and possibly not recommend profitable work as a result.

“Independent shops that are investing in modern alignment equipment are quickly realizing the profit potential that it offers.”

Modern equipment has taken setup times of 15 minutes or more and reduced them to two minutes or less. When you have new equipment that allows this type of productivity, technicians will be scrambling to recommend alignments, even just from a maintenance standpoint.

“Speed and efficiency is key when it comes to productivity, and that’s what Hunter’s Hawkeye Elite Aligner provides,” said Kaleb Silver, director of product management, Hunter Engineering Company. “Fast, easy, wheel-referenced alignments with quick attachment and no wheel damage concerns is provided by the Quick Grip adapters.”

Quick mount wheel adapters are just one feature that has made setup much quicker with modern equipment. Automatic turn plates prevent a technician from having to manually remove the pins, barcode scanners make for quick vehicle identification, tire pressure stations automatically set the correct pressure and the technology of the cameras and targets is the crowning touch that makes setup and initial measurement a quick and easy process.

Also pointed out by Silver is the ability of Hunter’s equipment to address the Safety System Alignment need that’s present on most newer vehicles. Hunter’s patented CodeLink offers coverage for steering angle sensors and common ADAS sensors requiring calibration after a wheel alignment.

“The hottest conversation today revolves around ADAS calibration, especially after collision repair and windshield replacement.”


“The hottest conversation today revolves around ADAS calibration, especially after collision repair and windshield replacement,” said Silver. “Hunter’s new ADASLink Full Diagnostic Scan Tool and the DAS3000 from Bosch address these needs for most vehicles on the road today.”

Independent shops that are investing in modern alignment equipment are quickly realizing the profit potential that it offers. Much of the software on new equipment is designed to help the technician with built-in illustrations and adjustment procedures to remove any guesswork from the job.

Car dealerships are also realizing the advantages of modern equipment. “Car dealers love the reliability of Hawkeye Elite,” said Silver. “It’s the most common aligner in car dealers today because it’s approved by more OEMs than any other aligner.”

Collision repair shops have also been seeing the increased benefit of investing in modern equipment. The same advantages of efficiency apply as with mechanical shops, but ADAS calibration is a necessary part of collision repair that is only growing. Wheel alignment and ADAS calibration can now be addressed at the same time.

Even if you are only beginning to think about new alignment equipment, a recommendation from BendPak is to purchase an alignment lift as opposed to a standard four-post lift. An alignment lift, while functionally the same as a four-post lift for standard service, is designed differently with runways that are outfitted for turn plates. You can use an alignment lift just as a regular four-post and when you are ready to invest in the additional equipment, you already have what you need.

Armed with the core knowledge of alignment angles and the advantages of modern equipment, alignments will quickly become one of your most profitable services. If you’d like to read more about alignment theory and equipment, drop us a line.

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Scan Tool Tech

While systems can and will differ, here’s a look at common ADAS features, their general configurations and calibration requirements.

scan tool tech

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) require the use of a scan tool for diagnostics, and the majority of the time, it’s required for post-repair calibration. ADAS, like any other system, requires a diagnostic routine, which begins with a base knowledge of the system. Knowing ADAS will help understand fault symptoms and scan tool data for the most efficient diagnosis.While systems can and will differ, here’s a look at common ADAS features, their general configurations and calibration requirements.Parking assist sensors, of which there can be more than one, are generally located in the front and rear bumpers. They are the inputs that affect active parking assist and parking collision warnings. Any time they are disturbed in any manner, a static calibration must be performed with a scan tool.Side object sensors, sometimes called collision avoidance sensors, are commonly located in the rear bumper. These sensors provide input for blind spot warnings, lane change alerts and rear cross traffic warnings. Static calibration with a scan tool is required when these are removed or replaced.Rear vision cameras will be located in the rear decklid, liftgate or tailgate, and act as either a backup camera alone, or part of a surround view system if the vehicle is so equipped. These cameras generally require a dynamic calibration, and no scan tool is required.A forward-looking camera is sometimes located behind the grille, and usually part of a surround view system. These too do not require a scan tool, but a dynamic calibration must be performed when they are removed or replaced.Different ADAS features may have dedicated control modules which can be located in various areas, often behind interior panels. As with most control modules, these require scan tool programming when replaced and, depending on the system, both static and dynamic calibrations may be required.The Haptic Seat Motor creates the vibration to provide a safety alert for blind spot, forward collision, lane departure, lane keep assist, parking collision and rear cross traffic warnings. These motors, sometimes called seat warning actuators, generally require no type of calibration.Cameras located in a sideview mirror are part of surround view systems. These require calibration when removed or replaced, but most of them dynamic, and no scan tool is required.The steering angle sensor located in the steering column is an input for lane keep assistance, and a static calibration is required with a scan tool any time it is removed or replaced, or any time a wheel alignment is performed.Last, but not least, is the front view, or forward-looking camera located in the windshield area. This camera is a vital part of adaptive cruise control, automatic emergency braking, automatic high beam headlights, forward collision and lane departure warnings, and lane keeping assistance. A scan tool and static and dynamic calibration are required after removal and replacement, but also after windshield removal or replacement, or any service that affects the ride height of the vehicle. TS

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